Part I: English names
I still think it is sad that names in English do not clearly convey meaning to the average person. The only meaning the name might have is its association to people - which could be the intention, or could be misleading.
Part 2: Miscellaneous Name Notes
I really like the names Finn and Phine(h)as. Could the one be a nickname of the other? :p Also, I wish there were other forms of the name Jeremiah besides Jeremy. Finally, I had a friend many years ago named Zachary, but never realized his name was a form of Zachariah/Zechariah.
Part 3: Names given by God
Many people in the Bible are renamed by God:
Abram -> Abraham
Sarai -> Sarah
Jacob -> Israel
Simon -> Peter
Levi -> Matthew (?)
Saul -> Paul
Some people are named by God before their birth:
John (the Baptist)
Now, who am I missing? I want to construct a comprehensive list!
Part 4: Names given by Men
The church I attend here in Maryland is a branch of the 'Bible Fellowship' which started in Korea. They have a tradition here to give each other new names to encourage one another in their new, Spiritual lives. It still feels kind of odd to me, but it's neat to see. Last Sunday, a recently married fellow from Korea took the name Peter. My Bible teacher chose the name Maria many years ago, and her husband was given the name Luke by his Bible teacher when he was in college. I still think there is a difference between a name given by God and given by men, but it is an interesting practice! One needs as much encouragement as possible in this world.
Part 5: My name
While my name is not a character in the Bible, it is a parable in Matthew 13:45-46. μαργαριτης, from which Margaret and then Megan come, means 'pearl'. I hear that the original Greek derives from an old Persian word. In Japanese, a kanji-form the name could take carries a kind of double of meaning through the alternate pronunciation megumi (珠).
Anyway, my point is, names are very complicated and a ton of fun to research!