The reign of Jeroboam II is estimated to have occurred around 791–750 BC. "Jeroboam...became king in Samaria, and reigned forty-one years." 2 Kings 14:23 During his reign, Assyria was a major world power. Israel only lasted another 30 or 40 years after Jeroboam II's reign. During those final years, Israel saw a series of six different kings and was ultimately conquered by Assyria in 722 BC. Assyria was itself conquered about a hundred years later in 612 BC.
The prophecy of Amos was delivered during Jeroboam's reign: "The words of Amos...which he saw concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel..." Amos 1:1 It would appear that Israel was given somewhere around 70 years to consider the warning before they were judged.
The prophecy of Jonah was apparently delivered during Jeroboam's reign as well: "[Jeroboam] restored the territory of Israel from the entrance of Hamath to the Sea of the Arabah, according to the word of the Lord God of Israel, which He had spoken through His servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet who was from Gath Hepher." 2 Kings 14:25 Jonah was also commanded to prophesy to Israel's enemy - Assyria!?
Here are some questions I have of the text...
Question: Did Israel refuse to repent at the preaching of Amos while the Assyrians did repent at the preaching of Jonah?
Question: Was the prophecy of Nahum delivered to Nineveh (as a warning) or to Judah (as a comfort)?
Question: Was Nahum written after 722 BC, considering the curious stanza in Nahum 2:2?
Question: Was Micah prophesying during the final days of the Northern Kingdom of Israel? It appears that way. "The word of the Lord that came to Micah of Moresheth in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah..." Micah 1 [c.750-beyond 722 BC] It seems that he picks up where Amos left off. I'm not sure how Obadiah fits into any of this, but I haven't really studied that book before.
Question: Did Assyria's fate (how she conquered Israel as an instrument of God's justice but was then herself conquered) serve as a picture of the future of the Chaldeans in the 6th century BC? Are these historical nations and events part of what God is referring to in Habakkuk 2? Would the knowledge of Assyria's fate have been any comfort to Habakkuk in the face of the Chaldean invasion?
Question: How was repentance and faith preached by these ancient prophets? And what of today?