These are the words used for the different types of sacrifices offered in the Tabernacle/Temple from about 1500 BC - 100 AD. From what I was reading about Yom Kippur, it sounds like there were 2 chatat (a bull and a goat) and one (or two?) olah (ram) offered as part of the day. Another goat was also used, but sent into the wilderness and not killed.
(olah) "ascending offering" - the word refers to rising or the fact that the offering is burned whole; the word is first used of Noah's offering after the Flood from which "the LORD smelled a soothing aroma" (Genesis 8) - Leviticus 1, 6:8-13
(minchah) "grain/meal offering" - the offering is food made of flour, oil, and frankincense; a gift to God that could be prepared in various ways; the word is first used of Abel and Cain's offerings (Genesis 4) - Leviticus 2, 6:14-23
(shelamim) "peace offering" - the offering was voluntarily given to thank God; some of it was offered to God on the altar, some was received by the giver, and some was received by the priest to eat - Leviticus 3, 7:11-21
(chatat) "sin offering" - offered to atone for "transgressions committed erroneously" (chabad.org); the Hebrew word means to miss or go the wrong way; first used in Genesis 20:6 when God warned Abimelech before he sinned without knowing; the word appears often and twice in Psalm 51:4, 7 - Leviticus 4, 6:24-30
(asham) "guilt offering" - this offering was required in three specific situations, including the case where you're not sure whether you've sinned or not; first used in Genesis 26:10 when Abimelech confronted Isaac about the situation that nearly led to guilt; also used in Isaiah 53:10 - Leviticus 5, 7:1-10